Monday, 2 July 2018

Reflections on Alt.NET Birmingham 2018

Around ten years ago, a bunch of developers got together in London under the banner of ‘alt dot net’ to talk about code, the universe and everything. Ten years doesn’t sound like much, but it’s actually quite amazing to look back on how much has changed. Back at that first alt.NET unconference, a handful of people in the room had a first-generation iPhone. I don’t think anybody had an Android device yet. Stack Overflow didn’t exist. Most of us weren’t on Twitter yet — In fact, my first-ever blog post was a writeup of that first alt.NET UK unconference and I didn’t join Twitter until three months later

Most .NET developers in 2008 were still running Windows XP, apart from the unlucky few who’d upgraded to Vista and couldn’t work how to go back. Visual Studio 2008 was the new shiny. Lots of shops were still hosting on Windows 2003 or even Windows 2000 Server. That first wave of alt.NET was a bunch of developers who found C# and Visual Studio to be a powerful and productive platform for building software, but a platform that came bundled with a particular set of ‘best practises’ that weren’t necessarily the way we wanted to be working. The .NET community, such as it was, was heavily concentrated around Microsoft’s own conference and events, and there was very little discussion in that community around ideas like extreme programming, agile, model-view-controller unit testing, browser automation, dependency injection… you know. Ideas that are widely acknowledged here in 2018 to be, if not magic bullets, then well worth knowing and understanding how they might apply to the work you’re doing.

And now here we are, ten years later, on a glorious sunny day in Birmingham. Twenty-odd developers getting together on a Saturday under that same Alt.NET banner to talk about… well, whatever we want to talk about. That’s the beauty of the unconference format. The attendees create the schedule on the day. There’s no prepared presentations, no speakers, no keynotes or programme committee — you come along, you bring your questions and ideas and the things you want to talk about, and we see what happens.

An hour of spirited discussion and a LOT of post-it notes later, and we had an agenda — and what a wonderful range of topics:

Messaging and reference data, Blazor, XAML, WebAPI and EF Core and OData, liberating structures and agile processes, quantum computing and Q#, the SAFE stack, devops for mobile apps, Docker and Kubernetes and network security, gRPC and Service Mesh, dot net command line tooling, “are micro services dead?”, functional programming (and functional-style programming in C#), running dot net core on Linux, Systems Thinking, building JavaScript services in .NET Core, diversity and inclusivity, risk based software architecture, Xamarin and F#, and a crash course in Git and GitHub.

One of the great things about the unconference format is that you’ll end up with a bunch of curious people in a room wanting to learn about something… but ‘cos there’s no speakers and no ‘experts’, we’ll just fire up a laptop, find a quickstart or a ‘hello world’ tutorial or something, and start hacking on it. So we started off the day with a mob programming session on Blazor — one of the gang had a half-finished experimental chatbot they’d been working on, so we got that up on a big screen and played around with it for an hour until we had asynchronous callbacks and model binding working.

The next session I went to was one I’d proposed about quantum computing — I saw an intro session from Anita Ramanan and Frances Tibble at DDD13 in Reading last week, and I’ve been itching to download Q# and try it out… and so, in the absence of any quantum computing experts to tell us the answers, we had another group hack session with a laptop plugged into a big screen. What I found really remarkable about this session was how easily we got the whole thing up and running. I’m running the .NET SDK on macOS, using VS Code and JetBrains Rider, and it only took a few minutes to download the quantum computing preview, install it, fire up a ‘hello world’ app (or the Q# equivalent thereof) and start playing around with simulating quantum entanglement.

Next up was a freeform discussion all about command line tooling — gulp, grunt, yeoman, yarn, bower, npm, the dot net cli templating system — how did we get here, what did we like, and why the hell does running ‘dotnet new mvc’ drop a bunch of .something.bower files into your repository? We talked a lot about boilerplate code — about the days when File > New > Project would drop a few hundred lines of .designer.cs and .csproj files into your solution, which was never intended for human consumption, but you could guarantee that eventually SOMETHING would go wrong with one of those files and you’d have to roll your sleeves up and work out how to fix it. And we talked about how for people that have experienced this, Microsoft’s move towards a far more minimalist project file syntax is a Good Thing — but that alongside that, there’s a whole bunch of complexity that we’ve adopted wholesale from the npm ecosystem for managing web assets and front-end dependencies. We talked a bit about Andrey Taritsyn’s BundleTransformer, and the idea of treating SASS, SCSS, TypeScript et al as part of your solution and relying on the .NET pipeline to compile them at request time, and how the npm/node mindset has encouraged developers to regard these sorts of concerns as compile-time rather than runtime operations. The consensus — amongst our small and opinionated but by no means authoritative group — was that there’s still a pretty steep learning curve for the old-school .NET developer trying to understand modern web build tooling, but that it’s generally all getting a lot better.

I also made an honourable mention of the latest .NET CLI tooling by describing how an hour previously I’d installed the Quantum Computing SDK on macOS and got a couple of demos up and running, without having to reboot into Windows or fire up Visual Studio, and how that was actually quite awesome.

We broke for lunch — which was entirely thanks to Ian Russell, who I gather ended up not only organizing but also subsidising quite a lot of the event. For which we are all eternally grateful, but if there’s anyone out there whose company might be interested in supporting this kind of event, here’s a bit of advice for you. Community groups and events like this can make a few hundred pounds go a long, long way, but if your corporate sponsorship process means filling out forms, signing waivers and NDAs, submitting corporate investment opportunity proposals… the sort of people who run events like this are unlikely to appreciate your ‘support’. Work out how to support this kind of event with £500 out of petty cash, or offer to pick up the bill for lunch or something, and we’ll just say nice things about you and tell everyone on Twitter how grateful we are. You can get a lot of good will and positive buzz (not to mention sandwiches!) for less than it costs to hire a .NET contractor for one day — but when it comes to this kind of thing, please remember that your accounting procedures are your problem and not anybody else’s.

But I digress. Lunch was delicious and Ian, next time you’re down our way, the London .NET gang are taking you out for dinner to say thank you.

And on to the afternoon. First up was a session about functional programming — what is it, why does it matter, and how do you do it in C#? Partly inspired by some of Mike Hadlow’s blog posts about refactoring object-oriented C# into a more functional style, it was a great discussion; with some folks in the room who have very much embraced the functional paradigm, some folks who have spent years dabbling in F# but still prefer C# for everyday development, and some folks who haven’t really encountered functional programming but have heard a lot about it and would love to know why it sounds so important. Ian Cooper shared the ‘devil’s argument against F#’ — “I’m not sure I agree with all of this, but I know it well and I think it’s useful to share it” — about how pure functional programming is never going to cross the chasm from the bleeding edge to mainstream adoption; about how a lot of the ‘textbook’ benefits of functional programming are that it scales easily across multiple cores but that as an industry we’ve very much embraced the idea of scaling using services and containers rather than building monolithic applications that scale effectively on high-performance hardware. I pointed out that this notion of ‘scaling’ is very much rooted in ideas around scaling straightforward CRUD processes to cope with massive volumes of users — the predominant computational model of high-traffic web applications — and that there’s still lots of challenges around simulation, video rendering, gaming and machine learning where scaling a local process across multiple cores is still the most compelling route to improved performance. We also briefly discussed the dynamic that exists between the F# community and the rest of the .NET ecosystem (TL;DR: it’s mostly very friendly and lovely, but there’s still a perception that the functional community can be a bit elitist when it comes to sharing ideas with their object-oriented cousins).

There were also several recommendations to check out Scott Wlaschin’s book ‘Domain Modelling Made Functional’, both for an excellent overview of domain-driven design covered in the first few chapters, and for some worthwhile insight into the value of using functional programming patterns in your domain models.

Next was a session that ended up on the board as a combination of ‘diversity’ and ‘attracting new speakers’ — but ended up running a broad gamut from conferences and community, to speaker tips, suggestions and ideas for encouraging more people to get involved in what we do. I’m the first to admit that .NET has a massive problem with diversity — the vast majority of .NET developers in the UK are middle-aged white guys, and whilst there’s many brilliant speakers, engineers and evangelists on our platform who don’t conform to that particular stereotype, if you turn up to a .NET user group pretty much anywhere in the UK, it’s going to be overwhelmingly white males of a certain age. We talked about this at some length, including the observation that a lot of the people who are still passionate about .NET as a platform are people who have been here since the beginning, since the days of Visual Studio .NET and C# 1.0, and there’s not a whole lot of people who have made a conscious decision to embrace .NET as a development platform who didn’t already have some kind of investment in the Microsoft/Windows/SQL Server platform. The session convened around a question — how do we get more people looking at .NET as a development platform? It’s free. It’s open source. It’s cross-platform. It runs on macOS, Linux and Windows, it’s got excellent hosting and infrastructure support from multiple cloud providers… so why aren’t we seeing more interest in it? (When we figure out the answer, I’ll let you know. Promise!)

Finally, we wrapped up with a park bench discussion about “The .NET Renaissance — Where Are We?”. Following on from a series of blog posts and conference talks (and at least one DotNetRocks podcast) that various members of the .NET community have shared over the last eighteen months or so, and overlapping a lot with some of the questions and ideas from the session on diversity and inclusivity, we talked about .NET — past, present and future. Ian Cooper shared some slides, graphs and stats based on various metrics — recruitment websites, TIOBE — along with a healthy disclaimer that all programming language metrics were probably wrong and there’s “lies, damned lies, and percentages”. We talked about how Unity is creating a path into programming for a lot of first-time developers who are interesting in creating games and immersive 3D environments, and how the increasing interest in devices like GearVR and Hololens is only going to encourage this. Jim Bennett (who I should point out was here sharing his own opinions and not any official Microsoft position) spoke about how the diversity of platforms and runtimes almost guarantees long-term investment in C# as compared to platforms like Flutter/Dart, which are still tightly coupled to specific hardware and OS platforms. .NET has got some absolutely first-class tooling support. It runs on a huge number of devices — not just Windows, Linux & macOS, but thanks to Xamarin it’s now running on Android, iOS, Samsung’s Tizen platform (yeah, did you know your Samsung smart TV can run .NET Core applications?) — and with companies like AirBnB talking openly about the challenges they’ve had trying to use frameworks like React Native to deliver cross-platform solutions across web and mobile, it’s clear that there’s still a big unsolved problem around building cross-platform consumer apps, and that .NET Core and Xamarin Forms is working really hard to offer a compelling solution to that problem that could turn out to be the incentive that attracts a new generation of developers and startups onto the platform.

We took a few moments to plug a couple of other .NET events that are coming up in the UK over the next few months — the ProgNET conference and tutorials that we’re running at Skills Matter in September, and DDD East Anglia, which is another free community event that’s taking place in Cambridge in September.

And then, after eight hours of inspiring conversations and insightful observations, we went to the pub to reflect on how the day had gone. One thing that stood out was that, asking people how they’d heard about the event, there was very little correlation. Many of the people who came along today heard about it through word of mouth, and despite promoting the event widely on Twitter, email and social media, we probably knew a few dozen people between us who would have come along if they’d known it was happening. Asking people to give up a Saturday to come along to an unstructured conference is a bit of a big ask, sure — but actually, I think it’s one of the things that makes the unconference format work well. If you ran an event like that on a Friday, you’d probably get a lot more signups from people who persuaded their boss to give them a day off to go to a free conference… but you’d probably also get a lot more people turning up late, sitting quietly without really contributing anything, and I daresay sloping off the pub at lunchtime and not coming back. Most of the people who came along today weren’t based in Birmingham, and even though the event itself was free, somebody who gives up a day of their time and pays out of their own pocket to travel to an event like Alt.NET is exactly the kind of person you want involved.

One thing was overwhelmingly evident, though. If you’d taken today’s agenda back in time to 2008 and showed it to the people who came along to that first Alt.NET UK event, they wouldn’t have understood half of it (“coober-netties? What the hell is coober-netties?”) — and there’s no way they’d have believed the other half. C# running on an iPhone? HA! ASP.NET on Linux? HAAA! And when you sat down an hour later and worked out how install a quantum computing simulator on macOS and then hack together a quantum entanglement demo using a free open-source code editor with support for an experiment language for writing quantum algorithms, they would not have believed for a second that Microsoft and .NET was the driving force behind all those amazing innovations.

It was one of the most positive and inspiring events I’ve been to in a while — and when I think of how many excellent conferences and meetups I’ve been to in the last few months, that’s really saying something. Huge thanks to Ian Russell and Dave Evans for putting it together, to ImpactHub for the venue, but most of all to everyone who came along. An event like this is only as good as the people who show up, and today was absolutely awesome. See you all at the next one.

Oh, and the session on ‘are microservices dead?’ Yeah. Nobody turned up. I guess that makes it official. RIP microservices. It’s been… emotional :)


Various things that were shown, shared, discussed or mentioned:

Tuesday, 9 January 2018

Tech and travel in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine

Over the past couple of years, I’ve spoken at quite a few conferences in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus – DotNext in Saint-Petersburg and Moscow, BuildStuff in Kyiv and Odessa, and .NET Summit in Minsk. Later this year, I’ll be heading back to Saint-Petersburg for DotNext, and travelling to Novosibirsk in Siberia for CodeFest. All these events have open calls for papers, and if you’ve ever wanted to visit these places, tech conferences are a great way to do it. Lots of people have asked me what’s involved and whether it’s something they should look into - so here’s what I did, how it all worked for me, and some tips that might be useful.

Please remember I’m not an immigration lawyer. This is all based on my own experience, and I’m a straight white British cis male with no special dietary or medical requirements who is quite happy travelling alone in strange places. Laws, customs and cultures can vary wildly, so do your own research if you’re concerned about anything.

First up – yes, do it! I’ve had fantastic experiences on all these trips. The conferences I’ve spoken at have been first-class, professional events, with excellent facilities and really attentive, engaged audiences. Travelling in a country where you can’t even read the alphabet can be a bit of a culture shock at first, but I’ve had no problems navigating hotels, public transport and conference venues as an English speaker. Apps like Uber are great for this: being able to call a taxi and see exactly where you’re going and how much it’ll cost is hugely reassuring when you’re somewhere unfamiliar and can’t speak the language.

The church of the Saviour of the Spilled Blood, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.The Winter Palace, Saint-PetersburgC'mon, you can work out what this says...2017-05-19 17.45.47

If you’re up for a challenge, have a go at learning to read the Cyrillic alphabet. The Russian language is hard, but you’ll find lots of the words on things like street signs and restaurant menus are familiar words, once you can read the language they’re written in. Being able to recognise things like Банка (banka – a bank), Гамбургер (hamburger) and Феттучини (fettucine) will get you a long way. (Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian are distinct languages with some broad similarities, but being able to recognise familiar English words in Cyrillic will stand you in good stead throughout the region.)

Church of the Saviour of the Spilled Blood, Saint-Petersburg

Visiting Ukraine and Belarus

If you’re a British passport holder, visiting Ukraine is easy; you can enter Ukraine without a visa for up to 90 days. Belarus has an interesting visa waiver: British citizens can enter without a visa as long as they stay less than five days and they enter and leave via Minsk international Airport. You need to show proof of medical insurance to clear passport control (and the authorities don’t consider a PDF on your phone to be documentary evidence). If you don’t have insurance, you can purchase it at the airport. It’s priced in euros, and you can pay in cash in Belarusian rubles, Russian rubles or “freely convertible currency” – I paid in euro coins without any problems.

Welcome to Belarus!Minsk

The Red Church in MinskThe conference venue for DotNet Summit in Minsk, 2017

Visiting Russia

Visiting Russia is more complicated. British citizens will need a visa to enter Russia, which means you’ll need to apply through VFS Global, the agency that handles Russian visa applications in the UK. (Note that Russian embassies in other countries often won’t process visa applications for British nationals living abroad – if you’re a Brit living elsewhere in the EU you’ll probably need to travel to London to apply for and collect your visa.) There’s a dizzying array of visa types – tourist, private, student, work, business – and you’ll find various opinions online about what kind of visa you need if you’re speaking at a technical conference. Given this ambiguity, I’ve always insisted on a business visa for my trips to Russia; I’ve never been asked anything on arrival other than when I’ll be leaving, but your experience may differ.

Here’s how it works. The whole process takes about two months.


  1. Ask the conference organisers to prepare your visa invitation
  2. Fill out the form on the VFS Global website
  3. Wait for confirmation that your invitation has been issued
  4. Go to the VFS Global office in London with your passport, form and documents
  5. Submit your application
  6. Wait 5 days (or 24 hours if you've paid for overnight processing)
  7. Go and pick up your passport and visa
  8. Go to Russia!

Your hosts (normally the company organising the conference) will issue you with a visa invitation. This can take a while, particularly if there are public holidays in Russia; they won’t do it more than a month in advance so you need to time everything quite carefully – especially if you have other travel commitments for which you’ll need your passport. The invitation will be sent by telex from the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to the Russian consulate in London. Your first application must be for a single-entry visa; if you’ve already done one trip and it looks like you’ll be doing a lot more you can ask them to prepare an invitation for a multi-entry visa valid for one year.

Meanwhile, take a look at the online application form on the VFS Global website. You can’t submit the form electronically – once you’ve finished filling it in, it’ll produce a PDF that you need to print. It asks for things like your parents’ dates and places of birth, details of every country you’ve visited in the last 10 years, information about your marital status (and, apparently, current contact information for your former spouse if you’re divorced or separated). It might take a while for you to dig out all the details you’ll need, so make sure you look at it well in advance. You won’t be able to complete your application until you’ve got your invitation, but you can make a start and save your progress.

Once your invitation has been issued, your hosts (or their travel agent) will send you an email with a ‘telex reference’ on it, which you you’ll need in order to complete the visa application form. Take the printed form, along with your passport and supporting documents, to the VFS Global application office in Gee Street in London, just north of Barbican tube station. There is a PDF on their website that lists the supporting documents you’ll need – passport, application form, passport photo, invitation (telex), introductory letter, and certified bank statements if you’re self-employed. I’ve never been asked to show the introductory letter or the bank statements, but take them with you anyway, just in case.

The VFS Global office is open 08:30-15:00 Monday to Friday, but if you turn up to submit a business visa application between 12:00 and 14:00 they’ll ask you to come back later – they’ll need to phone the Russian consulate to confirm receipt of your telex before they’ll accept your application, and they can’t do this between 12:00 and 14:00 because the consulate closes for lunch.

They’ll take your passport and all your paperwork. You’ll get fingerprinted, and pay the visa application fee and service charge. Cash or credit/debit card is fine, but they don’t take Amex. It’s about £120 total for a single-entry visa ready in 5 working days; if you’re in a hurry, they have an express overnight service which costs more. They’ll give you an application receipt. Don’t lose it – you can’t get your passport back without it.

When your visa’s ready, you’ll have to go back to pick it up – the office is open for collections between 16:00 and 17:30. Check that your visa details are all correct – it’ll be a full-page colour sheet stuck in your passport. One thing I’ve noticed is that names may not be transliterated into Russian consistently – I’ve got two visas in my passport right now; one says I’m Дилан Битти and the other one says I’m Дилан Бети (that’s roughly ‘bitti’ and ‘beti’ written in Cyrillic), but this doesn’t appear to be a problem.

That’s pretty much it. When you arrive in Russia you’ll be given an immigration card at passport control, which you’ll need to show when you check into your hotel to prove you’re in the country legally, and which you’ll need to go through passport control when you leave. Take a picture of this card on your phone (or ask the hotel to photocopy it for you), so you can keep the original with you and leave a copy in the safe in your hotel. The UK foreign office says you must carry your original passport with you at all times in Russia, and can be fined if you don’t produce it when asked. I’ve never been asked to produce mine, but I keep my passport, visa and immigration card on me, with printed photocopies of them all in the hotel room safe and digital copies in Dropbox, just in case.


Most hotels will change major foreign currencies into local currency. There are also foreign exchange bureaux everywhere, but I’ve always changed money in my hotel or used an ATM. If you’re planning to change money, carry cash in a combination of euros and US dollars, since these are most widely accepted by foreign exchange bureaux. It’s easy enough to get Russian rubles from a UK foreign exchange bureau before you leave for your trip, but you probably won’t be able to get Ukrainian hryvnia or Belarusian rubles. There are also ATMs everywhere and most restaurants will take Visa and Mastercard. If you’re using something like a Monzo card or other prepaid payment card, remember you may not have roaming data on your phone so top it up before you leave the hotel.

Roaming data outside the EU is seriously expensive. It’s a lot cheaper than it was a few years ago – during my first visit to Ukraine in November 2015, roaming data was £8/MB – but it’s still not cheap; in Russia, EE currently charges £7.00 for 100Mb, valid for 24 hours. Public wifi is widely available; in Kyiv it’s pretty ubiquitous and often completely unsecured (although you’ll need to know how to accept the terms and conditions in Ukrainian!) but in Russia and Belarus you’ll often find you need a local mobile phone number to register on public wifi spots. Make sure your phone’s unlocked before you go, pick up a local pay-as-you-go SIM card, and ask one of the conference organisers or a friendly local to help you activate and register it (remember that all the confirmation messages from the phone network will be in Russian or Ukrainian).

One of these buttons will connect you to the free wi-fi... do you know which one?One of these messages is confirming that I've added prepaid credit to my phone... apparently...

It’s also worth caching Google Maps offline using the “ok maps” feature, and downloading the Google Translate app and the language files for Russian to your phone so that even if you’re not online you’ll be able to navigate and translate some basic phrases.

Saint Basil's Cathedral, MoscowThe Monument to the Conquerors of Space, MoscowLenin's Mausoleum in MoscowBunker-42 - a museum set in a Cold War nuclear bunker in Moscow

And finally – don’t forget to actually see the place! It’s all too easy to travel halfway around the world for a conference and never see anything except the inside of the Radisson Blu, so if the conference organisers have arranged a tour of the city or any excursions, go along – you’ll get to see some really interesting things. Or head out on your own. Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, and Kyiv have fast, efficient metro networks, with stations and maps in English as well as Russian/Ukrainian. The metro is great for travelling around without having to talk to anybody – buy tickets at a machine, use the automated barriers, watch the locals when it comes to navigating around the stations and do what they do. There are metal detectors everywhere, which go off constantly. It looks like they’re being ignored but apparently they give the police probable cause to search anybody they don’t like the look of - personally I’ve never had any problems at all.

The great thing about being at a tech conference is that many of the attendees will be locals who know the city and will be perfectly happy to take you their favourite bar or a good place for dinner or some live music or whatever you fancy doing with your spare time. Enjoy the conversations, soak up the culture, try the local food, and remember not to stay up drinking vodka until 2am when your flight is at 06:30... unless you really, really want to.

Sounds like fun?

If all that’s piqued your interest... awesome! Here are a few events that are accepting papers at the moment.